Top 10 Costliest Large-Loss Fires In U.S. History

($ millions)

      Estimated loss (1)
Rank Date Location/event Dollars when occurred In 2017 dollars (2)
1 Sep. 11, 2001 World Trade Center (terrorist attacks) $33,400 (3) $46,300 (3)
2 Oct. 8, 2017 Northern, CA, wildland urban interface fire 10,000 10,000
3 Apr. 18, 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fire 350 9,500
4 Oct. 8-9, 1871 Great Chicago Fire 168 3,400
5 Oct. 20, 1991 Oakland, CA, firestorm 1,500 2,700
6 Oct. 20, 2007 San Diego County, CA, The Southern California Firestorm 1,800 2,100
7 Dec. 2017 Southern, CA, wildland urban interface fire 1,800 2,100
8 Sep. 12, 2015 Valley Fire, CA, wildland urban interface fire 1,500 1,600
9 Nov. 9, 1872 Great Boston Fire 75 1,500
10 Oct. 23, 1989 Pasadena, Texas, polyolefin plant 750 1,500
(1) Loss estimates are from National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) records. The list is limited to fires for which some reliable dollar loss estimates exist. (2) Adjustment to 2017 dollars made by the NFPA using the Consumer Price Index, including the U.S. Census Bureau's estimates of the index for historical times. (3) Differs from inflation-adjusted estimates made by other organizations due to the use of different deflators. Source: Reproduced with permission, © 2017, National Fire Protection Association https://www.nfpa.org/News-and-Research/Data-research-and-tools/US-Fire-Problem.